Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group

Defence Science Technology Group Australia and Partner Macquarie University Design a 94 GHz Hairpin Filter
The measured vs. simulation results we achieved to 145 GHz strengthens our confidence in 3D planar simulation using AXIEM.
Leigh Milner
Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group

DST and Macquarie Design a 94 GHz Hairpin Filter


The Defence Science and Technology (DST) Group ( is part of Australia’s Department of Defence and is the second largest publicly funded R&D organization in Australia. DST Group invests in collaborations with industry and academia to leverage its research outcomes. 


Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia (, is a hub of innovation and excellence and is quickly becoming one of Australia’s leading research universities through heavy investment in research, learning and teaching, new facilities, and mutually beneficial relationships with industry. 


DST Group and Macquarie University collaborate on research projects that develop cutting-edge millimeter-wave integrated circuits (ICs). The challenge was to investigate how well simulation agreed with measurement for a hairpin filter design. 


The filter’s initial design was conducted in a schematic simulator using closed-form models. The layout of the filter was then extracted to AXIEM EM solver within the NI AWR Design Environment platform. Additionally, thick metal meshing was used within AXIEM EM solver to accurately account for the coupling between the lines. Measured and simulated results for the 94 GHz hairpin filter agreed well. 

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